is an overview of the relevant regulations, policies, and programmes of Government
of India that have a bearing on methane recovery and use. Most of the regulations
and programmes have an indirect bearing on the capture of methane especially in
agriculture, landfills, oil and natural gas. The only sector that has a policy,
which directly influences and promotes methane recovery and use is coal bed methane.
Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India does not have regulations, policies
or programmes, which would directly address and encourage recovery and use of
methane as an alternate source for clean energy from agriculture and livestock.
The subject is directly
covered under the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India. This
is the nodal Ministry for framing regulations, policies and programmes for development
of new and renewable energy sources for supplementing the energy requirements
of the country. For promotion of indigenously developed simple biogas plants there
is one programme in place:
Biogas and Manure Management Programme (NBMMP)
programme was initiated in 1981-82 for the promotion of family size biogas plants
with the aim of providing clean and cheap source of energy along with other benefits
such as enriched organic manure, improved sanitation and hygiene and reduction
in drudgery for women. Three types of biogas designs, namely, the floating drum
type or KVIC design, fixed dome type and bag type portable digester are being
propagated under this programme. The programme is implemented through the State
Governments and administrations, corporate/registered bodies, KVIC, NGOs, Technical
Back-up Units (TBUs-set-up at nine locations to provide technical and training
support in a decentralised mode) and commercial and co-operative banks.
objectives of the programme are to provide fuel for cooking purposes and organic
manure to rural, households through family type biogas plants; to mitigate drudgery
of rural women, reduce pressure on forests and accentuate social benefits; and
to improve sanitation in villages by linking sanitary toilets with biogas plants.
Appropriate model of biogas plant should be selected on the basis of technical
requirements such as location, distance between kitchen and cattle shed, availability
of dung and water, preference of the beneficiaries etc.
programme promotes use of biogas, organic manure and improves sanitation, while
reducing methane emissions.
Technology Application for Rural Development (STARD)
aims at development, demonstration and adaptation of relevant and appropriate
technologies/ replicable models for empowering rural population and improving
quality of life in rural areas through time bound action research projects. As
an ongoing activity, core support was extended to eleven science-based organisations
to nurture S & T personnel to take up challenges to work on rural problems.
The main objective was to engage in developing cost effective technological solutions
in farm as well as non farm sectors ranging from natural resource management,
housing, renewable energy, agriculture and post harvest processing, rural engineering
with a possibility for micro-enterprise development at the village level.
programme would encourage and promote development of suitable technology for use
of clean fuel (methane) from farms (poultry farms, dairy industry etc) for development
of micro enterprises.
Programme on Energy Recovery from Urban and Industrial Wastes
programme was launched by Ministry of Non conventional Sources in 1995-96 with
the following objectives
To promote setting
up of projects for recovery of energy from wastes of renewable nature from Urban
and Industrial sectors.
To create conducive conditions
and environment, with fiscal and financial regime, to develop, demonstrate and
disseminate utilization of wastes for recovery of energy.
develop and demonstrate new technologies on waste-to-energy through R&D projects
and pilot plants.
is implemented through state nodal agencies and is applicable to private and public
entrepreneurs and organizations and non governmental organizations for setting
up of waste to energy projects on the basis of Build, Own and Operate (BOO), Build,
Own, Operate and Transfer (BOOT), Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) and Build,
Operate, Lease and Transfer (BOLT).
for an Accelerated Programme on Energy Recovery from Urban Wastes
Scheme is implemented by Municipal Corporations, other Urban Local Bodies, Govt.
Institutions and Private Developers having technical and managerial capabilities
for implementing such projects. In cases where debt financing is involved, IREDA,
financial institutions, or commercial banks forward the proposals to MNRE, along
with their appraisal notes and all the statutory clearances. In case of the self-financed
projects, requests accompanied with Detailed Project Reports and all the statutory
clearances need to be sent to MNRE before the commencement of execution work for
The main objectives of the scheme are:
accelerate the promotion of setting up of projects for recovery of energy from
urban wastes (including animal wastes from dairies, slaughterhouses etc.);
create a conducive conditions and environment, with fiscal and financial regime,
to develop, demonstrate and disseminate utilisation of wastes for recovery of
To harness the available
potential of MSW-to-energy by the year 2017;
GEF Assisted Project on development of high rate Biomethanation process.
assisted project was launched by Ministry of Non Conventional Sources in 1994.
The major objective of this project is to reduce green house gas emissions. The
project envisages setting up of demonstration sub projects for wastes from seven
sectors namely Sewage, Slaughterhouse, Leather & Tannery, Pulp & Paper,
Vegetable market yards, Fruit & Food Processing and Animal manure besides
utilization of biogas for power generation.
developmental objectives of the project are as follows:
and capacity building
Promotion of bio methanation
technology through setting up of demonstration sub projects and seminars and workshops,
Development of a National Master Plan
Publication of a quarterly newsletter `Bio-Energy News'
has been launched by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy with a view to promote
biogas based power generation, specially in the small capacity range, based on
the availability of large quantity of animal wastes and wastes from forestry,
rural based industries (agro / food processing), kitchen wastes, etc.
scheme is implemented through state nodal agencies with the involvement of energy
service companies, cooperatives, panchayats, NGOs, manufacturers and entrepreneurs.
proramme is implemented with the following objectives:
deploy biomass gasifier systems for meeting unmet demand of electricity in villages.
take up demonstration projects for 100% producer gas engine, coupled with gasifier
for off grid and grid power operation.
and enlarge activities, through awareness creation, publicity measures, seminars/workshops/
business meets/ training programme etc.
Village Electrification Programme
of the Remote Village Electrification Programme (RVE) is to electrify all the
remote census villages and remote hamlets of electrified census villages through
non-conventional energy sources such as solar energy, small hydro power, biomass,
wind energy, hybrid systems, etc. By focusing on unelectrified remote census villages
and remote hamlets of electrified census villages, the Programme aims at bringing
the benefits of electricity to people living in the most backward and deprived
regions of the country. All unelectrified remote census villages or remote hamlets
of electrified census villages, which will not be electrified by conventional
means by the end of the Eleventh Plan (2012), as certified by the concerned Power
Department / State Electricity Board, are eligible for coverage under the Programme
based Distributed / Grid Power Generation Programme
Ministry started a scheme "Biogas based Distributed / Grid Power Generation
Programme" from 2005-06 (January 4, 2006) with a view to promote biogas based
power generation, specially in the small capacity range, based on the availability
of large quantity of animal wastes and wastes from forestry, rural based industries
(agro / food processing), kitchen wastes, etc. The programme is implemented through
nodal departments / agencies of the States / UTs, KVIC, institutions and NGOs.
The projects may be taken up by any village level organization, institution, private
entrepreneurs etc in rural areas as well as areas covered under the Remote Village
Electrification (RVE) programme of MNES other than the industries and commercial
establishments covered under Urban, Industrial & Commercial Applications (UICA)
programmes for sale of electricity to individual / community / grid etc. on mutually
Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India is the nodal agency for
regulations and policies pertaining to the environment. Landfills as a subject
is covered under the ambit of the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling)
Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000
Ministry has issued the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules,
2000, which provides for collection, storage, segregation, transportation, processing
and disposal of solid wastes. The Rules state that all urban local bodies are
responsible for the municipal solid waste in its respective municipality. Whereas,
the Department of Urban Development in the State has overall responsibility for
enforcement of these rules in metropolitan cities.
Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 mandate that landfilling
should be restricted to non-biodegradable and inert waste which is neither suitable
for recycling nor for biological processing. Landfilling shall be carried out
for residues of waste processing facilities as well as pre-processing rejects
from waste processing facilities. Landfilling of mixed waste shall be avoided
unless the same is found unsuitable for waste processing.
sites shall meet the specifications (as given in Schedule -III of the Rules) pertaining
to the following activities:
Facilities at the Site
for Land filling
Water Quality Monitoring
Ambient Air Quality Monitoring
Plantation at Landfill Site
Closure of Landfill Site and Post-care
for hilly areas
Lal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM)
cities have been identified under the JNNURM. The main thrust of the mission is
on urban infrastructure and governance for infrastructural projects for solid
waste management. JNNURM (fund of Rs.100000 crore) is the biggest commitment by
the Government of India to support states in improving their environment on urban
The Twelfth Finance Commission
(TFC) was required to make recommendations on the measures needed to augment the
Consolidated Funds of the States to supplement the resources of the Panchayats
and Municipalities on the basis of the recommendations of the State Finance Commissions
(SFCs). The Twelfth Finance Commission (TFC) has recommended grants amounting
to Rs.25,000 crores payable during the period 2005-10 (Rs.20,000 crores for Panchayats
and Rs.5000 crores for Municipalities) to States for Rural and Urban Local Bodies.
has stressed upon public private partnerships to enhance service delivery of solid
waste management services in urban areas. TFC has urged municipalities of towns
with population above 1 million as per 2001 census to prepare comprehensive schemes
including composting and waste-to-energy programmes, which can be undertaken by
the private sector for appropriate funding. TFC has suggested earmarking of at
least 50% of grant for this purpose.
With the release
of the grant, an impetus is being provided to over all solid waste management
activities, which will reduce methane emissions at various stages of municipal
solid waste management.
promote recovery and use of methane from coal bed methane systems the Government
of India had issued the CBM policy in 1997. Currently there are no policies for
coal mine methane by the Government. The Ministry of Coal, Government of India
has regulations and policies that govern the conservation, development and prices
of coal, which would influence coal bed and mine methane indirectly.
Conservation and Development Act, 1974
in 1974, the Act provides for imposition of excise duty on coal dispatches for
meeting activities like conservation of coal, development of coal mines execution
and other operations for the safety in coal mines and research work connected
with conservation and utilisation of coal, etc, assistance in mining operations.
Safety of mines can
be augmented by capturing coal mine methane while mining and hence would also
result in efficient mining procedures.
Coal Policy, 1996
Planning Commission constituted the Committee on Integrated Coal Policy in 1996,
to evolve a policy for the coal sector for adoption in the Ninth and Tenth Plan
periods. The main recommendations include deregulating the prices of some grades
of coal and the establishment of a regulatory body to resolve price disputes.
The administered price mechanism for coal has been dismantled in phases. The prices
of all grades of coal have been deregulated with effect from January 1, 2000.
As the policy deals
with exploration and mining of coal besides regulating its prices and it could
have implications on CBM and CMM.
Bed Methane Policy (CBM)
order to explore and produce new sources of natural gas from coal bearing areas,
the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Government of India formulated the
CBM Policy, which provides for attractive fiscal and contractual framework for
exploration and production of CBM in the country. The Government so far has had
three bids-CBM-1, CBM-II and CBM-III. Under CBM-III the Government has offered
10 blocks for exploration and production of CBM. The Government has signed 26
contracts for exploration and production of CBM.
elements of the policy are:
No upfront payment
No signature bonus
Participating interest of the Government of India
development blocks allotted through a competitive bidding process.
7-year tax holiday, beginning with the date of commercial CBM production.
Freedom to market in domestic market at market determined prices.
equipment for CBM development exempted from customs duties (Directorate General
of Hydrocarbons, 2004-05)
AND NATURAL GAS
Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Government of India is entrusted with the
responsibility of exploration and production of oil and natural gas including
the import of LNG, refining, marketing, distribution, import, export and conservation
of petroleum products. Since methane is a significant constituent of natural gas,
exploration and production of methane from oil and natural gas systems gets covered
under regulation pertaining to them.
Oilfields (Regulation and Development) Act, 1948
Act was introduced on 8th September, 1948 and deals with regulation of oilfields
and development of mineral oil resources. Among other things, it regulates the
drilling, redrilling, deepening, shutting down, plugging and abandoning of oil-wells
in an oilfield.
and Natural Gas Rules, 1959 (As amended from time to time)
in exercise of powers conferred by sections 5 and 6 of the Oilfields (Regulation
and Development) Act, 1948 (53 of 1948) and in super-session of the Petroleum
Concession Rules, 1949. It regulates the grant of exploration licenses and mining
leases in respect of petroleum and natural gas, which belongs to Government, and
for conservation and development thereof.
rule regulates the exploration and mining of petroleum and natural gas.
& Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act, 2006
Act provided for the establishment of Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board
to regulate the refining, processing, storage and transportation, distribution,
marketing and sale of petroleum, petroleum products and natural gas excluding
production of crude oil and natural gas so as to protect the interests of consumers
and entities engaged in specified activities relating to petroleum, petroleum
products and natural gas in all parts of the country and to promote competitive
markets and for matters connected therewith.
act regulates the refining, processing, storage and transportation and distribution
of petroleum, petroleum products and natural gas
Gas Pipeline Policy, 2006
The Government of India notified the policy
for development of natural gas pipelines and city or local natural gas distribution
networks in India. The policy would promote investment from the public and private
sectors in natural gas transmission. The pipeline policy provides for the regulator
to set a ceiling rate for transportation charges. Companies will be free to offer
rates at different levels as long as it is under the ceiling. The policy will
cover cross-country pipeline operators and city gas distribution companies. The
policy is being brought in as several investors have been awaiting a clear policy
guideline in this regard. It would provide proper linkage between gas sources
and market centres, along with inter-connectivity for regions, consumers and producers.